Международная военно-историческая ассоциация
Международная военно-историческая ассоциация
Международная военно-историческая ассоциация
Международная военно-историческая ассоциация
Международная военно-историческая ассоциация
Международная военно-историческая ассоциация
Несвоевременные военные мысли ...{jokes}




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Советско-германский договор о ненападении 1939 года

Советский проект пакта о ненападении гласил дословно следующее:

"Правительство СССР и Правительство Германии, руководствуясь желанием укрепления дела мира между народами и исходя из основных положений Договора о нейтралитете, заключенного между СССР и Германией в апреле 1926 года, пришли к следующему соглашению:

Статья 1.

Обе Высокие Договаривающиеся Стороны обязуются взаимно воздерживаться от всякого акта насилия и агрессивного действия в отношении друг друга, как отдельно, так и совместно с другими державами.

Статья 2.

В случае, если одна из Высоких Договаривающихся Сторон окажется объектом акта насилия или нападения со стороны третьей державы, другая Высокая Договаривающаяся Сторона не будет ни в какой форме поддерживать подобный акт этой державы.

Статья 3.

В случае возникновения споров или конфликтов между Высокими Договаривающимися Сторонами по вопросам того или иного рода, обе стороны обязуются разрешать эти споры или конфликты исключительно мирным путем в порядке взаимных консультаций или, если необходимо, путем создания соответствующих арбитражных комиссий.

Статья 4.

Настоящий договор заключается сроком на пять лет, причем, если одна из Высоких Договаривающихся Сторон не денонсирует его за год до истечения срока, срок действия договора будет считаться автоматически продленным на следующие пять лет.

Статья 5.

Настоящий договор подлежит ратификации в возможно короткий срок, после чего договор вступает в силу.

Постскриптум

Настоящий договор вступает в силу только в случае одновременного подписания специального протокола по внешнеполитическим вопросам, представляющим интерес для Высоких Договаривающихся Сторон. Протокол является составной частью Пакта
 
/см.: Германский посол в Москве - в МИД Германии. Телеграмма N 190 от 19 августа // СССР - Германия. 1939 - 1941. Т. I. С. 47 - 48/.
 
Ратификация советско-германского договора о ненападении была осуществлена 31 августа 1939 года Верховным Советом СССР, а не его Президиумом.
Это являлось отступлением от установленного Законом СССР от 20 августа 1938 года "О порядке ратификации и денонсации международных договоров СССР" правила (в качестве примера следования данному правилу приведем ратификацию Президиумом ВС СССР 29 сентября 1939 г. советско-эстонского пакта о взаимопомощи от 28 сентября 1939 года (см.: Сообщение ТАСС о ратификации советско-эстонского пакта о взаимопомощи Президиумом Верховного Совета СССР // Известия. 1939. 30 сент.), ибо статья 1 названного закона гласила: "В соответствии с пунктом "м" статьи 49 Конституции СССР ратификация международных договоров производится Президиумом Верховного Совета СССР" (Текст закона см.: Образование и развитие Союза Советских Социалистических Республик. М., 1973. С. 490). Однако выводить из этого недействительность постановления Верховного Совета и ратификации советско-германского договора о ненападении не следует, так как в регламентировавшей компетенцию Верховного Совета СССР статье 31 Конституции СССР 1936 года говорилось, что "Верховный Совет СССР осуществляет все права, присвоенные Союзу ССР согласно статье 14 Конституции (пункт "а" статьи 14 Конституции относил ратификацию договоров с другими государствами к ведению СССР), поскольку они не входят, в силу Конституции, в компетенцию подотчетных Верховному Совету СССР органов СССР: Президиума Верховного совета СССР, Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР и Народных Комиссариатов СССР" (Конституция СССР 1936 г. // Там же. С. 455, 457, 459/. Такая формулировка статьи 31 призвана была не подчеркнуть отсутствие у Верховного Совета каких-либо правомочий, а для того, чтобы, не перечисляя их конкретно, определить круг его полномочий в целом. Иначе в тексте статьи употреблялся бы оборот ": за исключением тех правомочий, которые, в силу Конституции, входят в компетенцию подотчетных Верховному Совету органов СССР: Президиума Верховного Совета СССР:". В тексте же статьи 31 Конституции употреблялся пояснительный, а не противительный союз "поскольку".

Договор с секретными статьями, текст:

Documents relating to the partition of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union.
************************************************************************
From: Nazi-Soviet Relations 1939-1941. Documents from the Archives of the German Foreign Office (Washington D.C., 1948) p. 78
The Government of the German Reich and The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Desirous of strengthening the cause of peace between Germany and the U.S.S.R., and proceeding from the fundamental provisions of the Neutrality Agreement concluded in April, 1926 between Germany and the U.S.S.R., have reached the following Agreement:
Article I.
Both High Contracting Parties obligate themselves to desist from any act of violence, any aggressive action, and any attack on each other, either individually or jointly with other Powers.
Article II.
Should one of the High Contracting Parties become the object of belligerent action by a third Power, the other High Contracting Party shall in no manner lend its support to this third Power.
Article III.
The Governments of the two High Contracting Parties shall in the future maintain continual contact with one another for the purpose of consultation in order to exchange information on problems affecting their common interests.
Article IV.
Should disputes or conflicts arise between the High Contracting Parties shall participate in any grouping of Powers whatsoever that is directly or indirectly aimed at the other party.
Article V.
Should disputes or conflicts arise between the High Contracting Parties over problems of one kind or another, both parties shall settle these disputes or conflicts exclusively through friendly exchange of opinion or, if necessary, through the establishment of arbitration commissions.
Article VI.
The present Treaty is concluded for a period of ten years, with the proviso that, in so far as one of the High Contracting Parties does not advance it one year prior to the expiration of this period, the validity of this Treaty shall automatically be extended for another five years.
Article VII.
The present treaty shall be ratified within the shortest possible time.  The ratifications shall be exchanged in Berlin.  The Agreement shall enter into force as soon as it is signed.
[The next section was not published at the time the above was announced.]
Secret Additional Protocol.
Article I.
In the event of a territorial and political rearrangement in the areas belonging to the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), the northern boundary of Lithuania shall represent the boundary of the spheres of influence of Germany and U.S.S.R. In this connection the interest of Lithuania in the Vilna area is recognized by each party.
Article II.
In the event of a territorial and political rearrangement of the areas belonging to the Polish state, the spheres of influence of Germany and the U.S.S.R. shall be bounded approximately by the line of the rivers Narev, Vistula and San.
The question of whether the interests of both parties make desirable the maintenance of an independent Polish States and how such a state should be bounded can only be definitely determined in the course of further political developments.
In any event both Governments will resolve this question by means of a friendly agreement.
Article III.
With regard to Southeastern Europe attention is called by the Soviet side to its interest in Bessarabia.  The German side declares its complete political disinteredness in these areas.
Article IV.
This protocol shall be treated by both parties as strictly secret.
Moscow, August 23, 1939.
For the Government of the German Reich
v. Ribbentrop
Plenipotentiary of the Government of the U.S.S.R.
V. Molotov
****************************************************************
From: Nazi-Soviet Relations 1939-1941. Documents from the Archives of the German Foreign Office (Washington D.C., 1948) p. 93
VERY URGENT
STRICTLY SECRET
No. 360 of September 15
For the Ambassador personally.
I request that you communicate the following to Herr Molotov at
once:
1) The destruction of the Polish Army is rapidly approaching its conclusion, as appears from the review of the military situation of September 14 which has already been communicated to you. We count on the occupation of Warsaw in the next few days.
2) We have already stated to the Soviet Government that we consider ourselves bound by the definition of spheres of influence agreed upon in Moscow, entirely apart from purely military operations, and the same applies of course to the future as well.
3) From the communication made to you by Molotov on September 14, we assume that the Soviet Government will take a hand militarily, and that it intends to begin its operation now. We welcome this. The Soviet Government thus relieves us of the necessity of annihilating the remainder of the Polish Army by pursuing it as far as the Russian boundary. Also the question is disposed of in case a Russian intervention did not take place, of whether in the area lying to the east of the German zone of influence a political vacuum might not occur. Since we on our part have no intention of undertaking any political or administrative activities in these areas, apart from what is made necessary by military operations, without such an
intervention on the part of the Soviet Government there might be the possibility of the construction of new states there.
4) For the political support of the advance of the Soviet Army we propose the publication of a joint communique of the following content: "In view of the complete collapse of the previous form of government in Poland, the Reich Government and the Government of the U.S.S.R. consider it necessary to bring to an end the intolerable political and economic conditions existing in these territories. They regard it as their joint duty to restore peace and order in these areas which are naturally of interest to them and to bring about a new order by the creation of natural frontiers and viable economic organizations."
5) We assume in proposing such a communique that the Soviet Government has already given up the idea, expressed by Molotov in an earlier conversation with you, of taking the threat to the Ukrainian and White Russian populations by Germany as a ground for Soviet action. The assignment of a motive of that sort would be out of the question in practice. It would be directly contrary to the true German intentions, which are confined exclusively to the realization of well-known German spheres of interest. It would also be in contradiction to the arrangements made in Moscow and, finally would, in opposition to the desire for friendly relations expressed on both sides, expose the two States before the whole world as enemies.
6) Since the military operations must be concluded as soon as possible because of the advanced season of the year, we would be gratified if the Soviet Government would set a day and hour on which their army would begin their advance, so that we on our part might govern ourselves accordingly. For the purpose of the necessary coordination of military operations on either side, it is also necessary that a representative of each Government, as well as German and Russian officers on the spot in the area of operations, should have a meeting in order to take the necessary steps, for which meeting we propose to assemble at Bialystok by air.
I request an immediate reply by telegraph. The change in text agreed upon by Gaus with Hilger has already bee taken care of.
****************************************************************
From: Nazi-Soviet Relations 1939-1941. Documents from the Archives of the German Foreign Office (Washington D.C., 1948) p. 101
To: German Foreign Office
From: Count Friedrich Werner von der Schulenburg, Ambassador to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Strictly Secret
No. 395 of September 19
Molotov stated to me today that the Soviet Government now considered the time ripe for it, jointly with the German Government, to establish definitively the structure of the Polish area. In this regard, Molotov hinted that the original inclination entertained by the Soviet Government and Stalin personally to permit the existence of a residual Poland had given way to the inclination to partition Poland along the Pissa-Narew-Vistula-San Line. The Soviet Government wishes to commence negotiations on this matter at once, and to conduct them in Moscow, since such negotiations must be conducted on the Soviet side by persons in the highest positions of authority, who cannot leave the Soviet Union. Request telegraphic instructions.
****************************************************************
From: Nazi-Soviet Relations 1939-1941. Documents from the Archives of the German Foreign Office (Washington D.C., 1948) p. 102
To: Count Friedrich Werner von der Schulenburg, Ambassador to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
From: Joachim von Ribbentrop, German Minister for Foreign Affairs.
STRICTLY SECRET
No. 417 of September 22
Reference you telegram No. 295[395?]. For the Ambassador personally.
We, too, consider the time now ripe to establish by treaty jointly with the Soviet Government the definitive structure of the Polish area. The Russian idea of a border line along the well-known Four-Rivers Line coincides in general with the view of the Reich Government. It was my original intention to invite Herr Molotov to Germany in order to formulate this treaty. In view of your report that the leading personages there cannot leave the Soviet Union, we agree to negotiations in Moscow. Contrary to my original purpose of entrusting you with these negotiations, I have decided to fly to Moscow myself. This particularly because-in view of the full powers granted me by the Fuhrer, thus making it possible to dispense with counterinquiries, etc.-negotiations can be brought to a speedier conclusion. In view of the general situation, my sojourn in Moscow will have to be limited to one or two days at the most. Please call on Herren Stalin and Molotov and wire me earliest proposed date.
****************************************************************
From: Nazi-Soviet Relations 1939-1941. Documents from the Archives of the German Foreign Office (Washington D.C., 1948) p. 106
Confidential Protocol
The Government of the U.S.S.R. shall place no obstacles in the way of the Reich nationals and other persons of German descent residing in the territories under its jurisdiction, if they desire to migrate to Germany or to the territories under German jurisdiction. It agrees that such removals shall be carried out by agents of the Government of the Reich in cooperation with the competent local authorities and that the property rights of the emigrants shall be protected.
A corresponding obligation is assumed by the Government of the German Reich in respect to the persons of Ukrainian or White Russian descent residing in the territories under its jurisdiction.
Moscow, September 18, 1939.
For the Government of the German Reich: J. Ribbentrop
By authority of the Government of the U.S.S.R.: W. Molotow
Secret Supplementary Protocol
The undersigned Plenipotentiaries declare the agreement of the Government of the German Reich and the Government of the U.S.S.R. upon the following:
The Secret Supplementary Protocol signed on August 23, 1939, shall be amended in item 1 to the effect that the territory of the Lithuanian state falls to the sphere of influence of the U.S.S.R., while, on the other hand, the province of Lublin and parts of the province of Warsaw fall to the sphere of influence of Germany (cf. the map attached to the Boundary and Friendship Treaty signed today). As soon as the Government of the U.S.S.R. shall take special measure on Lithuanian territory to protect its interests, the present German-Lithuanian border, for the purpose of a natural and simple boundary delineation, shall be rectified in such a way that the Lithuanian territory situated to the southwest of the line marked on the attached map should fall to Germany.
Further it is declared that the economic agreements now in force between Germany and Lithuania shall not be affected by the measures of the Soviet Union referred to above.
Moscow, September 28, 1939.
For the Government of the German Reich:
J. Ribbentrop
By authority of the Government of the U.S.S.R.
W. Molotow
Secret Supplementary Protocol
The undersigned plenipotentiaries, on concluding the German-Russian Boundary and Friendship Treaty, have declared their agreement upon the following:
Both parties will tolerate in their territories no Polish agitation which affects the territories of the other party. They will suppress in their territories all beginnings of such agitation and inform each other concerning suitable measures for this purpose.
Moscow, September 28, 1939.
For the Government of the German Reich:
J. Ribbentrop
By authority of the Government of the U.S.S.R.
W. Molotow
****************************************************************
Transcribed by:
Larry W. Jewell


Название статьи:   Российская империя, Русская Императорская армия
Категория темы:    Великая Отечественная война История Фашизма Просто Большевизм
Автор (ы) статьи:  
Источник статьи:    МИД СССР
Дата написания статьи:   29 сентября 1939 г.


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